The first paragraph of a manuscript. The time between getting the query or article and the publication of the article. Vital for seasonal articles and stories. A light, humorous style of fixed form poetry, usually of five lines and a subject matter which is silly.
Autonomous[ edit ] These have an inherent functionality in that their useful life corresponds to the length of their physical existence, i. Without pigment[ edit ] The oldest known examples were created by incising a flat surface with a rigid tool rather than applying pigment with a secondary object, e.
However, this may simply represent the relative durability of such artifacts rather than truly representing the evolution of techniques, as the meaningful application of pigment is attested in prehistoric cave paintings such as the ones at Lascaux. The ancient Sumerians and their successor cultures, such as the Babyloniansproduced their cuneiform writing by pressing a triangular stylus into soft clay tablets, creating characteristic wedge-shaped marks.
The clay tablets were then baked to harden them and permanently preserve the marks. Several other ancient cultures such as Mycenaean Greece also inscribed their records into clay tablets but did not routinely bake them; much of the Linear B corpus from Minoan Crete was accidentally preserved by writing action lead catastrophic fire which hard-baked those tablets.
The Romans used lead styli with wax tablets which could be "erased" by rubbing the beeswax surface smooth again. In the modern era, hand held computers and certain other computer input devices use a stylus to enter information onto a screen by applying pressure rather than by depositing pigment.
With inherent pigment[ edit ] The 3rd-4th-century writing implements from MtskhetaGeorgia. The original form of "lead pencil " was the leaden stylus used by the ancient Romans, who also used it to write on wood or papyrus by leaving dark streaks where the soft metal rubbed off onto writing action lead surface.
The concept has been revived in recent times as the core of the "inkless pen": White chalk has been traditionally used in schoolrooms to write on a main blackboard at the front of the room. In the 19th century, and indeed well into the 20th century, when paper was less readily available, individual students also wrote with chalk on their own small slates.
Both pencils and chalk exist in variants which can create marks in other colors, but colored pencils and colored chalk are generally considered to be art supplies rather than writing instruments. Similarly, although very young children may use colorful wax crayons to write words into their pictures, writing is not considered to be the primary use of crayons.
A wax pencil resembles both a crayon and a pencil in that it contains a brightly colored wax core within a protective paper casing, but its proportions are closer to that of a standard pencil.
Wax pencils are primarily used to write onto nonporous surfaces such as porcelain or glass. Normal pencils, chalk, and crayons all share the characteristic that they cannot "run out".
The useful life of these implements is closely linked to their physical existence. However, specialized accessories such as pencil sharpeners may be required to reshape the working end of the pigment core or to remove the outer casing from around the tip.
Assisted[ edit ] These require the presence of an added pigment in order to write, and are useless when "empty". Pen The pen is the most common form of writing implement. It has a hard tip which applies ink to a surface. Capillary-action dip pens[ edit ] Initially, pens were made by slicing a suitable nib point from the end of a thin, hollow natural material which could retain a small reservoir of ink by capillary action.
However, these ink reservoirs were relatively small, requiring the pen to be periodically dipped back into an external inkwell for replenishing. Reed pens were used by the ancient Egyptians to write on papyrus. Quill pens were standard in Europe and the United States up through the 18th and 19th centuries, and are still used in various contexts, such as calligraphy and formal settings such as major bank transactions.
The most common quills were taken from the wings of geese or ravensalthough the feathers of swans and peacocks were sometimes favored for prestige. A dip pen has a steel nib the pen proper and a pen-holder. Dip pens are very versatile, as the pen-holder can accommodate a wide variety of nibs that are specialized for different purposes: They can be used with most types of ink, some of which are incompatible with other types of pen.
Automatic pens are a category of dip pen, in which the nib is in two parts and can hold a larger quantity of ink. However, like all of its precursors, the steel-nibbed dip pens had a limited ink reservoir and a tendency to drip inkblots on the page. Fountain pen A letter written with fountain pen.
Fountain pens were developed in the 19th century. These consist of the nib unit, an ink reservoir chamber, and an external casing. Depending on the design of the pen, the ink reservoir can be filled in several different ways: Only certain types of ink can be used in a fountain pen, to avoid clogging up the nib unit mechanism.
Although the larger reservoir of fountain pens requires less frequent ink replenishment, the ink may inconveniently spill out in certain contexts to stain the paper, fingers, or clothing of an unwary writer.
Differences in air pressure may cause spectacular effects when travelling by airplane.The direct news lead gives the most important facts, the 5 Ws and an H, about the story. hard news story. writing that uses "he," "she," and "they" as subjects, allowing the writer to stand back and watch the people in action, then write about their activities from a non-participating point of view.
transition. a key word, phrase, theme or. Train, lead, and supervise a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of online classes. Know that when it comes time build skills into your resume, LiveCareer is here to help. PICTURE lead - The picture lead draws a vivid word picture of the person or in the story.
The idea is to have the reader see the thing as the writer saw it. The idea is . The better your writing skills are, the better the impression you'll make on the people around you – including your boss, your colleagues, and your clients.
Use AIDA – If you're writing something that must inspire action in the reader, follow the Attention-Interest-Desire-Action (AIDA) formula. These four steps can help guide you. The Confusing World of Reflexive Pronouns. By Judy Vorfeld. Have you ever wondered if you should say, “Jason and myself ” or “Myself and Jason ” or “Jason .
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