The bactericidal effects of electrolytically generated copper-silver ions on bacteria and algae are well documented.
|Utility-water | ProMinent Fluid Controls, Inc.||Experience tells us these systems often use a simple on-off control scheme for their fan motors — meaning when cooling is required, fans cycle on sequentially, each turning on at full speed, until enough cooling is achieved to maintain the setpoint temperature.|
|Solutions for Utility Water Treatment (Cooling Tower & Boiler)||Legionellosis and Legionella Another very important reason for using biocides in cooling towers is to prevent the growth of Legionellaincluding species that cause legionellosis or Legionnaires' disease, most notably L.|
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|Cooling Towers: Treatment without chemicals?||The fan may be spinning when a VFD is commanded to start.|
|Joliet Technologies – Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) and Cooling Towers||All power electronic equipment will dissipate heat which must be removed to prevent overheating of the semiconductor devices or other components. The installation and environmental factors must be considered with all external sources of heat removed or minimized.|
In comparison to chlorination, where a residual chlorine level must be maintained for several hours to effectively oxidize the biological material within a sump or cooling pond, copper and silver ions act continuously at low levels, generally 0. The action of these ions is biocidal rather than bioinhibiting as in the case of chlorine.
Temperature independent and pH tolerant to 9. Scale and Hardness Control: Scale and hardness control within tower cooling waters may be accomplished via a non-chemical, ionization processes. Supporting features of an integrated ionization system are, electrocoagulation, mineral precipitation, crystallization and filtration.
The main principles employed are associated with an electroflocculation of suspended and colloidal particles, which is achieved with small controlled quantities of metal ions being dissociated from the flow cell's anode, resulting in the generation of metal hydroxides to assist the flocculation of the suspended particles.
Additionally, electrostriction causes suspended and dissolved particles to be stripped of their charges as they pass through the flow cell. These particles may then precipitate within the filtration media and be removed via the system's backwash cycle.
Crystallization of scale forming species within the engineered environment provides a reduction in water scaling potential with the physical removal of calcium and associated cations. To accomplish this, a vessel containing filtration media with a high affinity for those cations responsible for scale formation is placed in the feed water stream or within a side stream system.
With the excessive exposure to calcium, the media bed, by way of equilibrium constantmaintains the vessels' aqueous environment which becomes saturated with scale forming cations. The micro environments immediately surrounding the individual media particles approach a supersaturated condition as additional cations are introduced and natural absorption and desorption occurs within the media.
The media, selected for both its ion exchange capabilities and its unique surface structure, encourages precipitation of the scale forming species on its surface.
Additional cations and seed crystals entering the vessel from the feed water serve to further induce crystalline formation on the surface of the media. As aragonite and calcite crystalline growth occurs upon the surface of the media, the scale forming species within the water are precipitated within the vessel and adhere to the media as a calcite and aragonite formation.
Solidification of the media bed and filtration vessel is prevented with a controlled, periodical water flow reversal and bed expansion.
The internal vessel agitation created by the "backwash" cycle causes the crystals to become dislodged from the media and removed from the vessel via the backwash to waste process.
The removal of the crystalline formation from the surface of the media is due to the difference in the Mohs hardness value of the media and the calcium based crystals.
Calcite, with a hardness of between 2 - 3, and aragonite with a hardness of 3.
The precipitation and crystalline formation within the vessel allows for a gross reduction of scale forming species within the water. In recirculating cooling tower water, both aragonite and calcite formation on the surface of the media results in the removal of calcium from the systems water.
This action ultimately "softens" the water by reducing the concentration of "hard" cations, rather than the traditional methods of softening via the replacement of hard cations with soft cations. In that the calcite crystals will incorporate Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn and Co, a variety of cations may also be removed as a result of the integrated process.
Basically, the overall effect is the removal of the cations, reduction of hardness, reduction of total dissolved and suspended solids to approximately 5 microns and the creation of a descaling circulating medium which reverses the scaling process within the contact surfaces of the system.
There have been a number of significant developments within the past few years pertaining to non-chemical treatment systems for cooling towers. Could it be that there is now an economical, meaningful solution available for the more thancooling towers in the country?
A system that offers corrosion control, suspended solids control, biological control and scale control with water savings, certainly would be appealing to many facility engineers.Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) and Cooling Towers Variable Frequency Drives & Cooling Towers Many utilities are now offering rebates for the installation of VFD’s or retro-fitting existing equipment with variable frequency drives.
quirement in cooling towers. VFDs also eliminate the need for motor starters, help- ing to offset the cost of the drives. Lower by the utility.
Several low-cost methods can reduce cooling tower water consumption. The first is to set a proper bleed rate for the tower.
VFDs and Cooling Towers; Posted January 20, by Pepper Hastings. Although it is best to consider VFD capabilities during a tower's initial design, VFDs can be implemented into existing applications effectively. Many resources offer comprehensive information on state, local, utility, and federal incentives that promote renewable.
Variable Frequency Drives: Operation and Application with Evaporative Cooling Equipment Benjamin Cohen It is highly recommended that all VFDs for cooling tower fan appli- cooling tower system’s resonant frequency, so it is recommended.
The Benefits of VFDs on Cooling Towers Variable-frequency drives can adjust fan speed, reverse fan rotation By JOE KOEPKE Yaskawa Electric America Inc.
state, local, utility, and federal incentives that promote renew-able energy and energy efficiency. Whether in a new design or an existing application, VFDs offer. May 13, · A cooling tower's motor is specifically manufactured to endure the rigors of either an industrial or a commercial application.
The driving equipment behind electric motors (fans and pumps) operate at a steady, constant speed, and are usually handled by a mechanical throttling such as pump valves or louver slats.5/5(5).