Concept[ edit ] The term business cluster, also known as an industry cluster, competitive cluster, or Porterian cluster, was introduced and popularized by Michael Porter in The Competitive Advantage of Nations
What a bottle was used for is referred to on this website as a "bottle type" or "type of bottle", i.
The process of ascertaining what a bottle was used for is termed typology or simply "typing" and is the subject of this webpage and the many connected sub-pages. Since it was the contents of a bottle that guided the consumer in making a selection, not the bottle itself, contents are the most important consideration in establishing categories for bottle classification Herskovitz Glass containers are engineered along very specific design principles.
Container size, orifice diameter, neck length, and other attributes as well as the rations between such morphological characteristics are determined largely by such basic principles as frequency of access, amount of contents removed with each access, and the type of content bulk solid, liquid, semi-liquid, etc.
Most bottle shapes were closely associated and identified with a certain product or products as "form follows function" to a large degree in bottle shapes and styles.
However, there were many exceptions and different "standard" bottle styles have varying degrees of fidelity to type with some shapes less connected to a specific product than soda and beer Porter diamond and france wine.
Of course, there will always be a few wild exceptions that leave one scratching their head as to why that shape was used for that product. The embossing is also upside down relative to the bottle base because the bottle was inserted upside down into to a metal dispenser for use Rochester Midland Co.
Oddities like this abound in the historic bottle world and one just needs to be aware that there are always exceptions to any general statement or "rule" with the dating and typing of bottles.
A small, square bottle could have been used for shoe polish, oil, pills, dental powder, or a number of other purposes. Classifying a shoe-polish bottle several times as a pill bottle would obviously lead one to erroneous conclusions about the users.
It is not suggested that functional interpretations be eliminated; rather they may play a part in description as possible uses, and in site interpretations. The functions of many bottles with traditional shapes are well known. Though the relative probabilities noted here are not and can not be specifically - or statistically - quantified, the relative probability predictions are based on the information gleaned from hundreds of references and bottle maker catalogs as well as the authors observations over many decades.
Critical to predicting the likelihood of a certain bottle shape being closely associated with a particular type of contents are bottles with the original labels still intact and embossed bottles, where the original contents are obvious. A note about embossing: What a bottle was used for what "type" of bottle it was can often be easily ascertained if there is e mbossing on the bottle.
It could well have been reused for other products, but one can be sure that it was originally used for a proprietary brand of bourbon. But from when does this bottle date?
That is the other primary question most people have about a given bottle besides what it was used for. The point here is that the dual process of both dating a bottle and determining what it was used for typing provides mutually complementary information in that the typing often gives clues about the age and the manufacturing related diagnostic features can sometimes provide clues about the bottle type.
Consulting other website pages e. Back to bottle bottle body embossing Conversely, users will note that a lot of the bottles pictured on this website will have embossing because an embossed bottle provides the potential for additional information about a particular bottle style or shape which is directly applicable to its non-embossed - but similarly shaped - counterpart.
Because it has the same shape and shares the same primary manufacturing characteristics, it is reasonable to conclude that this bottle almost certainly dates from the same era as the Teakettle, i. In summary, form follows function most of the time and is the best one can do from this juncture in time unless the unembossed bottle in question has the original label.
Even then, as Berge noted above, this only tells one what the last use of the bottle was, if indeed the bottle was reused.
Attached to this complex of pages is one that is an ongoing pictorial coverage of all types of bottles with their original labels.
This page allows users to see specifically what many different shapes of bottles were used for as the original labels are still intact. Click Labeled bottles to move to that section of this page.
For the first time user of this site it is recommended that the following information be read prior to moving to the Bottle Typing section. First this cautionary note: Like bottle dating, bottle "typing" typology is not a precise science.
Depending solely on the shape of a bottle to conclude what its contents originally were is not absolute, but the best one can often do. There are a couple primary reasons for this:PAUILLAC, CHATEAU LYNCH BAGES Bordeaux, France 95 This is a tasting note.
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