Muslim rebellions in Yunnan and in Shaanxi and Gansu originated from clashes between the Chinese and Muslims in those provinces. Religious antipathy must be taken into account, but more important were social and political factors. In the frontier provinces the late-dynastic confusions were… Prehistory c.
Morocco —58 With the marriage of the heirs apparent to their respective thrones Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile created a personal union that most scholars view as the foundation of the Spanish monarchy.
Their dynastic alliance was important for a number of reasons, ruling jointly over a large aggregation of territories although not in a unitary fashion. Ferdinand of Aragon was particularly concerned with expansion in France and Italy, as well as conquests in North Africa.
The Kingdom of Portugal had an advantage over the rest of Iberian, having earlier retaken territory from the Muslims. Portugal completed Christian reconquest in and settling the kingdom's boundaries. Portugal then began to seek further overseas expansion, first to the port of Ceuta and then by colonizing the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Azores ; it also began voyages down the west coast of Africa in the fifteenth century.
Following the voyage of Christopher Columbus in and first major settlement in the New World inPortugal and Castile divided the world by the Treaty of Tordesillaswhich gave Portugal Africa and Asia and the Western Hemisphere to Spain.
Columbus unexpectedly encountered the western hemisphere, populated by peoples How are the legacies of colonialism reflected in the world today named "Indians.
Managing the expanding empire became an administrative issue. It had conquered Melilla inand further expansionism policy in North Africa was developed during the regency of Ferdinand the Catholic in Castile, stimulated by the Cardinal Cisneros.
Several towns and outposts in the North African coast were conquered and occupied by Castile: Tripoli was taken on 24—25 July, the feast of St. Jamesprotector of Spain; the claim was made that 10, Muslims were killed and many captured. The Spanish conquest of Oran was won with much bloodshed: The Zeiyanid sultans of Tlemcen quickly submitted to Spanish protectorate, and the two powers soon became allies.
Cardinal Cisneros converted two mosques to Catholic use, and restored and expanded the town's fortifications. Oran, like other principal Algerian ports, was forced to accept a presidio military outpost ; it became a major naval base, a garrison city armed with traffic-commanding cannons and harquebuses.
For about years, Oran's inhabitants were virtually held captive in their fortress walls, ravaged by famine and plague; soldiers, too, were irregularly fed and paid.
The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy: As King of AragonFerdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy; these conflicts became the center of Ferdinand's foreign policy as king.
In these battles, which established the supremacy of the Spanish Tercios in European battlefields, the forces of the kings of Spain acquired a reputation for invincibility that would last until the midth century.
After the death of Queen Isabella inand her exclusion of Ferdinand from a further role in Castile, Ferdinand married Germaine de Foix incementing an alliance with France.
Had that couple had a surviving heir, likely Aragon would have been split from Castile, which was inherited by Charles, Ferdinand and Isabella's grandson. Ferdinand's first deployment of Spanish forces came in the War of the League of Cambrai against Venicewhere the Spanish soldiers distinguished themselves on the field alongside their French allies at the Battle of Agnadello Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France, seeing a chance at taking both Milan — to which he held a dynastic claim — and Navarre.
This war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and inFrance agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper Navarrewhich had effectively been a Spanish protectorate following a series of treaties in,and Conquest of the Canary Islands The conquest of the Canary Islands Portugal obtained several Papal bulls that acknowledged Portuguese control over the discovered territories, but Castile also obtained from the Pope the safeguard of its rights to the Canary Islands with the bulls Romani Pontifex dated 6 November and Dominatur Dominus dated 30 April The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between andwhen the islands of Gran Canaria —La Palma —and Tenerife — were subjugated.
Chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea "spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there". The War of the Castilian Succession —79 provided the Catholic Monarchs with the opportunity not only to attack the main source of the Portuguese power, but also to take possession of this lucrative commerce.
The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea: Isabella at the center, Columbus on the left, a cross on her right. The two became known as the Catholic Monarchswith their marriage a personal union that created a relationship between the Crown of Aragon and Castile, each with their own administrations, but ruled jointly by the two monarchs.
Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.
In the Capitulations of Santa Fedated on 17 AprilChristopher Columbus obtained from the Catholic Monarchs his appointment as viceroy and governor in the lands already discovered  and that he might discover thenceforth;   thereby, it was the first document to establish an administrative organization in the Indies.
Spain's claim  to these lands was solidified by the Inter caetera papal bull dated 4 Mayand Dudum siquidem on 26 Septemberwhich vested the sovereignty of the territories discovered and to be discovered. These actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south later with the exception of Brazilwhich Portuguese commander Pedro Alvares Cabral encountered inas well as the easternmost parts of Asia.
The treaty of Tordesillas  and the treaty of Cintra 18 September  established the limits of the Kingdom of Fez for Portugal, and the Castilian expansion was allowed outside these limits, beginning with the conquest of Melilla in Other European powers did not see the treaty between Spain and Portugal as binding on themselves.
Francis I of France observed "The sun shines for me as for others and I should very much like to see the clause in Adam's will that excludes me from a share of the world.Their colonizers had left legacies, both good and bad.
Three area’s were the legacy of colonization is felt strongly are economic development, civilization development and cultural transformation.
2. Legacies of colonialism in the today’s world Table of Contents Introduction 3 Three areas in which the legacies of colonizer affect 3 Discussion about Sociol & economic changes 4 Discussion about Civilisation development 4 Discussion about Urban Enlargement 4 Some specific examples showing the reflexion of colonizer’s legacies in today’s world 5.
Islamic world, prehistory and history of the Islamic community. Adherence to Islam is a global phenomenon: Muslims predominate in some 30 to 40 countries, from the Atlantic eastward to the Pacific and along a belt that stretches across northern Africa into Central Asia and south to the northern.
The Goddess movement includes spiritual beliefs or practices (chiefly neopagan) which has emerged predominantly in North America, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand in the pfmlures.com movement grew as a reaction to perceptions of predominant organized religion as male-dominated, and makes use of goddess worship and a focus on gender and femininity.
The modern western world has colonialism and imperialism entrenched into its history. The racial and ethnic tensions that are apparent in contemporary society can be traced through history back to the time of colonialism and imperialism. To pretend it is not there is to play into the hands of the modern far right.
Legacies of colonialism: Weak states and economic underdevelopment. The weakness of postcolonial nations was a result of colonialism—which left a political heritage of weak states with limited control over territory and regimes that relied on ethnic divisions, a centralized authority, and patronage systems inherited from colonial rule.