# Assumptions and conditions for using statistical

What assumptions are made when conducting a t-test? Maverick Updated February 14, — They either fail to provide conditions or give an incomplete set of conditions for using the selected statistical test, or they list the conditions for using the selected statistical test, but do not check them.

How can we help our students understand and satisfy these requirements?

## The T-Test

Many students struggle with these questions: What are assumptions and conditions? What, if anything, is the difference between them?

Why bother checking them? What follows are some suggestions about how to avoid, ameliorate, and attack the misconceptions and mysteries about assumptions and conditions. Start Early Inference is a difficult topic for students. It will be less daunting if you discuss assumptions and conditions from the very beginning of the course.

Make checking them a requirement for every statistical procedure you do. What kind of graphical display should we make — a bar graph or a histogram?

The key issue is whether the data are categorical or quantitative. Students should always think about that before they create any graph. If they decide on a pie chart or a bar graph, require that they write down the These data are categorical.

A histogram shows the data are reasonably symmetric and there are no outliers. Note that students must check this condition, not just state it; they need to show the graph upon which they base their decision. Of course, these conditions are not earth-shaking, or critical to inference or the course.

They serve merely to establish early on the understanding that doing statistics requires clear thinking and communication about what procedures to apply and checking to be sure that those procedures are appropriate. For example, if there is a right triangle, then the Pythagorean theorem can be applied.

## What statistical analysis should I use?Statistical analyses using SAS

The same is true in statistics. If those assumptions are violated, the method may fail. The assumptions are about populations and models, things that are unknown and usually unknowable. And that presents us with a big problem, because we will probably never know whether an assumption is true. There are three types of assumptions: We must simply accept these as reasonable — after careful thought.

Plausible, based on evidence. False, but close enough. We know the assumption is not true, but some procedures can provide very reliable results even when an assumption is not fully met.

In such cases a condition may offer a rule of thumb that indicates whether or not we can safely override the assumption and apply the procedure anyway.

## Bioconductor - edgeR

A condition, then, is a testable criterion that supports or overrides an assumption. Many students observed that this amount of rainfall was about one standard deviation below average and then called upon the Those students received no credit for their responses.

The other rainfall statistics that were reported — mean, median, quartiles — made it clear that the distribution was actually skewed.

Students should have recognized that a Normal model did not apply. The correct answer involved observing that 10 inches of rain was actually at about the first quartile, so 25 percent of all years were even drier than this one.The assumptions of the Pearson product moment correlation can be easily overlooked.

The assumptions are as follows: level of measurement, related pairs, absence of outliers, normality of variables, linearity, and homoscedasticity. Provides detailed reference material for using SAS/STAT software to perform statistical analyses, including analysis of variance, regression, categorical data analysis, multivariate analysis, survival analysis, psychometric analysis, cluster analysis, nonparametric analysis, mixed-models analysis, and survey data analysis, with numerous examples in addition to syntax and usage information.

Second, a focus on practices (in the plural) avoids the mistaken impression that there is one distinctive approach common to all science—a single “scientific method”—or that uncertainty is . Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models and their associated estimation procedures (such as the "variation" among and between groups) used to analyze the differences among group means in a pfmlures.com was developed by statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald pfmlures.com the ANOVA setting, the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into.

The t-test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic follows a Student's t-distribution under the null hypothesis.. A t-test is most commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a normal distribution if the value of a scaling term in the test statistic were known.

When the scaling term is unknown and is replaced by an estimate based on the data, the test. Establishing that one's data meet the assumptions of the procedure one is using in an expected component of all quantitatively based journal articles, theses, and dissertations.

This write-up provides a general overview of the most common data assumptions which the researcher will encounter in statistical research.

Assumptions for ANOVA | Real Statistics Using Excel